Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach’s choral music belongs almost exclusively to the years 1768–88, when he served as music director for the city of Hamburg.1 The only known exceptions are the Magnificat, Wq 215; the Easter cantata Gott hat den Herrn auferweckt, Wq 244; the wedding cantata Willst du mit diesem Manne ziehen, H 824a; and a few works from Bach’s student days, of which only a recently discovered cantata written for Leipzig (c. 1734) survives, as well as a few librettos for works performed at Frankfurt an der Oder. Series V presents these choral works, organized by genre and tradition. The three oratorios—the Passions-Cantate, Wq 233; Die Israeliten in der Wüste, Wq 238; and Die Auferstehung und Himmelfahrt Jesu, Wq 240—and the twenty-one Passions have been assigned to series IV. Furthermore, it seemed appropriate to include the few secular works for solo voices, including Klopstocks Morgengesang am Schöpfungsfeste, Wq 239, in series VI with the vocal chamber music. The divisions between series IV, V, and VI are thus fluid and determined primarily by pragmatic decisions.
In many ways, C.P.E. Bach’s responsibilities in Hamburg were similar to those of his father in Leipzig. Like his predecessor Georg Philipp Telemann, Bach had to supply music on a regular basis for the city’s five main churches: St. Petri, St. Nicolai, St. Jacobi, St. Catharinen, and St. Michaelis. The musical requirements included cantatas not only for the main services on Sundays and feast days, but also for vesper services as well as special occasions, mainly installations of pastors and other officials. A smaller portion were commissions of the Hamburg bourgeoisie or its representatives, such as funeral pieces for mayors, or occasionally oratorios and serenades for the Bürgercapitain celebrations. The number of such commissions, especially from private individuals, was significantly less than during former times. Similarly, a smaller number of new church cantatas, which for J.S. Bach and Telemann still clearly formed a central part of their creative work, were used in the services. Like his brother Wilhelm Friedemann during his time as music director in Halle (1746–64), C.P.E. Bach instead focused on pieces for the high feast days. These cantatas were called Quartalstücke (quarterly music) to celebrate the principal seasons of the liturgical year: Christmas, Easter, Pentecost, and Michaelmas. Otherwise, Bach was content to perform works by other composers. After Bach’s death, the declining interest in the cantata as the main musical component of the church service became evident in 1789 when the two head pastors at St. Catharinen and St. Michaelis, Berkhan and Rambach, demanded the reduction of church music with choir and orchestra from 120 to 30 services annually, thereby ultimately approving and confirming Bach’s own approach.2
Even though only a small portion of the performance repertory, as recorded in NV 1790 and the auction catalogues of 1789 and 1805, is extant,3 the surviving material reveals a broad spectrum of procedures. These include presenting minimally altered works by other composers; mixing borrowed movements by various composers—occasionally with movements by Bach himself—to form pasticcios; and composing completely new works. This presents an uncommon situation for the complete edition of a composer’s creative output and requires case-by-case solutions.
For performances within and outside of the churches, Bach could generally count on only seven or eight paid church singers; the orchestra formed by the town musicians consisted of approximately fifteen reliable professionals. For special occasions additional musicians could be added, in which case they had to be paid separately.4 The performance materials almost always contain information about the place and date of performance. Transposed organ parts imply one of the four older main churches: in St. Catharinen and St. Nicolai the organs were tuned a whole step higher than regular pitch; in St. Petri and St. Jacobi the organs were tuned a minor third higher; only the organ in St. Michaelis was tuned to Kammerton.5 Thus, non-transposed continuo parts, especially when marked “Fundament,” usually imply one of the Hamburg concert halls.
Series V is divided into the following volumes:
|5.||Works for Special Occasions|
|6.||Miscellaneous Sacred Works|
Most of the works in this series were composed with specific situations in mind. As they conformed to Hamburg tradition, their use was restricted to that city, and they mostly survive only in their original sources. These were sold at the 1805 auction of Anna Carolina Philippina Bach’s estate and many were acquired by Georg Poelchau (1773–1836). Most consist of complete sets of parts prepared by some of Bach’s Hamburg copyists. A full autograph score is the exception rather than the rule: the autographs show that often only individual movements were newly composed or revised so substantially as to require a new autograph copy, whereas other movements were simply copied directly into the parts from extant sources at Bach’s request. A small number of full copies in score were requested of Bach’s widow after the publication of the estate catalogue (NV 1790), mainly by Bach’s successor Christian Friedrich Gottlieb Schwencke (1767–1822) and by the Schwerin collector Johann Jakob Heinrich Westphal.6
Owing to their limited transmission, the editing of most of these pieces poses no fundamental problems. In many cases the sources from Bach’s library reveal several stages of revision; rarely is a publication of more than one complete version necessary in order to represent properly two or more distinct stages of revision. A variety of means (ossia systems, excerpts, commentary, replacement movements) are applied to all versions that may be regarded as authorized by the composer. Only a small number of large-scale vocal pieces adhere to the principle of revision toward an aesthetically motivated Fassung letzter Hand; most vocal works were apparently rearranged primarily for pragmatic reasons. Later versions thus do not necessarily replace earlier ones; the earlier ones may have been revived by Bach at a later occasion. Bach’s practice of rearranging several movements from a small repertoire in different contexts may be seen particularly well in the funeral compositions, where a limited number of chorale settings are used in various combinations. The edition takes a practical approach in presenting a complete, coherent version of each work, sometimes including both an early and late version (as with the Magnificat, Wq 215), and always accounting for the various surviving sources and known versions.
One of C.P.E. Bach’s most important responsibilities as music director in Hamburg from 1768 to 1788 was to supply the music at church services for the installation of clergymen and members of church councils.7 A distinction was made between the installations of Juraten, which took place regularly at the five principal churches in Hamburg, and those which were held occasionally, mostly of Leichnamsgeschworenen and of new pastors and deacons.8
Installations of Juraten took place without large expenditures on fixed dates: on the Second Day of Christmas at St. Petri, on Ascension at St. Jacobi, on the Eve of Epiphany at St. Nicolai, on Quasimodogeniti at St. Catharinen, and on Oculi at St. Michaelis. These installations were treated as part of the regular church services; only at St. Jacobi was a special honorarium in the amount of 6 Marks paid to the Kantor. The Juraten—depending on the parish—were seldom elected more than seven days before the installation, sometimes on the day of the installation itself.
Since the Leichnamsgeschworenen were elected from the elders (Oberalten) for life, the time of their installation was not predictable; the ceremony normally took place during one of the regular services with music in the respective principal church. In special cases the regularly scheduled ganze and halbe Musik were moved from one church to another, to reduce the amount of time that elapsed between the election and the installation. Installations of Leichnamsgeschworenen (and new pastors) were special events celebrated with a large orchestra (including timpani and trumpets) and were paid for separately. The expenses for these services were specified exactly. The cost ranged between 31 Marks, 8 Schillings for the performance of a preexisting piece in an extra afternoon service (the installation of an unnamed Leichnamsgeschworener, possibly Nikolaus Adolph Schmidt, at St. Petri on 29 January 1786), and 151 Marks for the performance of a new piece (the installation of Johann von Döhren as pastor of Heilig-Geist on 10 September 1773), whereby the composition of the music alone cost 75 Marks, including copyist’s expenses and the honorarium for directing, as stated in the invoice.9 The expenses were, as a rule, paid by the respective congregations; when a new composition was performed, the pastors sometimes bore some of the financial burden.10 It appears, however—judging from Bach’s entries on invoices—that the parties were not always in agreement about the assumption of costs.
Each of the five principal churches of Hamburg employed a head pastor and up to four deacons. The Ministerium, the administrative body that oversaw all the churches in Hamburg, was responsible for a large number of additional congregations both inside and outside the walls of the city.11 These included the churches of St. Johannis, St. Maria Magdalena, Heilig-Geist (Holy Spirit), Heilige Dreieinigkeitskirche (Holy Trinity), and St. Pauli auf dem Hamburgerberge; the churches associated with St. Hiob Hospital, the Waisenhaus (orphanage), the Zuchthaus (correctional institute), the Pesthof, and the Spinnhaus-Kirche; and, as a relic of the Hanseatic League, the guard ship on the Elbe River. Furthermore the churches in Eppendorf, Hamm und Horn, Billwerder an der Bille, Moorfleet, Allermöhe, Ochsenwerder, Moorburg, Ritzebüttel, Groden, Döse, and Altenwalde were in Hamburg territory (though up to 80 miles away from the city), whereas the churches in Bergedorf, Altengamme, Neuengamme, Kirchwerder, Curslack, and Geesthacht were overseen jointly by the Hamburg and Lübeck clergy.12 Finally, some German congregations abroad recruited pastors from Hamburg, most notably London and Arkhangelsk (on the Russian coast of the White Sea). The installation of pastors serving the latter took place in Hamburg.13 The Hamburg Cathedral (Dom), however, was not in the municipal music director’s realm of responsibility, but rather was subordinate to the Bremen Cathedral chapter.
The order of service at installation liturgies is not documented in the Vesperordnung of 1699 which was valid for Bach’s term of office. There is, however, a detailed account, from the last years of Telemann’s tenure, of the installation of a new deacon at one of the five main churches.14 The installation liturgy corresponded more closely to a principal service than to a vesper service. The focal point was the pastor’s inaugural sermon, which occasionally was published.15 The report of the installation of Johann Christoph Friderici as the head pastor of St. Petri shows that the ceremony continued to be celebrated as it was in Telemann's day:
“Yesterday [12 December 1775] Herr Johann Christoph Friderici, Doctor of Theology, … delivered his inaugural sermon at the great principal church of St. Petri, that … was heard by an extraordinarily large congregation. Afterward Senior Herrnschmid introduced him to the congregation of St. Petri as their primary teacher. Before and after the sermon Kapellmeister Bach performed a cantata that he had composed for this celebration.”14
The librettos of the Einführungsmusiken reflect the basic bipartite structure indicated in this report of Bach’s performance. Apparently, the pastor gave his inaugural sermon after part I of the music, and was then introduced by the Senior (the leader appointed by the Hamburg Senate) of the Ministerium. The installation thus became an official event that was not restricted to the particular parish (Kirchspiel); rather the entire Beede (the clerical board of the city which included the pastors of all Hamburg churches) was present. It is therefore evident that the installation could not be combined with a regular Sunday service.
Based on the dates given in the printed librettos, we can conclude that the site of the installation determined which day of the week the installation was to be held, starting with St. Petri as the oldest parish: at St. Petri and St. Michaelis on Tuesday; at St. Nicolai on Wednesday; at St. Catharinen on Thursday; at St. Jacobi on Friday; and at St. Johannis on Saturday. The apparent anomaly in the scheme, whereby installations at both St. Petri and St. Michaelis were held on Tuesdays, is related to the fact that the installations were integrated into the weekday services with a Hauptpredigt at the respective main churches to avoid scheduling conflicts with the other congregations. No Hauptpredigten were held in Hamburg on Mondays. (The schedule of services in Hamburg in Bach’s day was published annually in the Hamburgischer Staats-Calender under the heading “Nachricht von den Predigten in Hamburg.”). The installations of pastors called to serve extramural congregations were regularly held at the main church of the head pastor who served as Senior of the Hamburg clergy: initially Johann Melchior Goeze at St. Catharinen (resigned in 1770), followed by Georg Christian Herrnschmid at St. Michaelis (1770–79), Johann Dietrich Winckler (1779–84) at St. Nicolai, and finally Christian Ludewig Gerling at St. Jacobi from 1784 on.
All of the surviving librettos contain, at the beginning of part II, the hymn Veni, Sancte Spiritus (Come, Holy Spirit), a prayer for the blessing of the Holy Spirit on the new preacher; the consecration (Einsegnung), however, did not take place until the end of the service. The performing materials of the Einführungsmusiken do not contain the Veni, Sancte Spiritus; presumably, the music for that movement was selected from a small repertoire of appropriate pieces. Of these, a piece that may have been performed often is the Veni, Sancte Spiritus, Wq 220, which survives in several Hamburg sources and is listed in NV 1790 (p. 63 [no. 7]) among Bach’s works, but was actually composed by Telemann (TVWV 3:84).17 Whereas Telemann’s Veni, Sancte Spiritus is fully orchestrated, Bach’s single original setting of that text (Wq 207) is very intimately scored for three (solo) voices and basso continuo.
The Einführungsmusiken are quite lengthy, sometimes lasting for as much as an hour. Part I contains, as a rule, between ten and twelve movements and concludes with a chorale; part II generally has (besides the Veni, Sancte Spiritus) up to eight movements. The conclusion of the whole, after the consecration of the new pastor, consists of a choral movement that is taken from one of the two parts of the work; often, but not always, it is the opening chorus of part I.18
The texts of the Einführungsmusiken are for the most part general in nature and contain prayers for God’s assistance for the new preacher; literal allusions to the candidates are only rarely found; see, for example, the Einführungsmusik H 821b for Johann Matthias Klefeker, who succeeded his father Johann Conrad Klefeker as head pastor in Moorfleet in 1771.19 The biblical text for the inaugural sermon was not integrated into the cantata text, making it easier to reuse any Einführungsmusik for a later occasion. Some of the pastors—perhaps for financial reasons—explicitly requested the revival of an older work, for example, at the installation of Albert Georg Brandes as deacon of the church in Groden on 25 August 1768.20 Like the two cantatas performed before and after the sermon in regular services, the two parts of the Einführungsmusiken were largely independent of each other. Bach therefore sometimes combined part I of a preexisting cantata of his or Telemann’s composition with part II of another such work to create a new pasticcio.21
The printed texts would have been produced a few days before the installation ceremony by the appropriate book printers (mostly Heinrich Christian Grund until 1772, Johann Philipp Christian Reuß between 1772 and 1785, and Peter Nikolaus Bruns beginning in 1786). Not every installation was announced ahead of time in the Hamburg newspapers. Apparently such announcements were not reported as news items, but were treated as advertisements and had to be paid for separately, as the invoices sometimes specify. The principal churches quite often spared themselves these costs.
The poets for the Einführungsmusiken are named only occasionally on the musical sources and on the text prints. Usually the librettists were members of the Hamburg clergy or local poets, as indicated in newspaper notices. These authors include Christian Wilhelm Alers (1737–1806), Daniel Schiebeler (1741–71), Christoph Daniel Ebeling (1741–1817), Johann Heinrich Lütkens (1746–1814), and Johann Heinrich Röding (1732–1827).19 The costs for poets (up to 15 Marks for a new text for a large-scale cantata) are for the most part not contained in Bach’s invoices; these payments were presumably arranged directly between the poet and the congregation.23
Up to six months could elapse between the election and the installation of a new pastor, an interval which made it possible for Bach to prepare extended compositions without excessive time pressure.24 The expression “newly produced and performed” (neu verfertiget und aufgeführt) on the printed librettos does not guarantee that every movement was composed by Bach. Most of the Einführungsmusiken are pasticcios. Altogether, BA 1789 and the surviving printed librettos indicate that Bach used seven Einführungsmusiken by Telemann, sometimes more than once, between 1768 und 1786.25 When he did not perform a work by Telemann, Bach drew on his store of occasional cantatas by other composers (above all Georg Anton Benda, but also Gottfried August Homilius, Christoph Förster, or Anton Schweitzer).26 A special case is the Einführungsmusik for Otto Christian Schuchmacher (H 821c) of 1771, for which the syndic and amateur composer Jakob Schuback contributed several movements. The costs reported in the invoices do not take into account borrowing of individual movements from other models, if parts of the cantata were indeed already performed in another context. In his Hamburg years Bach supplied music for around forty installations of pastors and deacons (see table 1). For these services, as far as we know, Bach performed approximately twenty works that he had compiled and seven cantatas by Telemann; the remainder consisted of new combinations of material that had previously been used.
During Bach’s tenure only one pastor celebrated his jubilee (fiftieth anniversary in office): Heinrich Hoeck (1700–79), pastor at the Heilige Dreieinigkeitskirche in Allermöhe since 1729 and, from 1741 on, pastor at St. Hiob Hospital.27 On 24 June 1775 Bach performed the now-lost cantata Herr, ich will dir danken as the Jubelmusik Hoeck, H 824c.28 Works for jubilees and installations of pastors were fundamentally interchangeable: part I of the Jubelmusik Hoeck served as part I of the Einführungsmusik for Franz Carl von Som, a work not even listed in NV 1790. Both works are listed in the same entry in AK 1805 (p. 30, lot 40), but the relationship between the two is not made explicit. This ambiguity illustrates an aspect of AK 1805 that is at once an asset and a liability. On the one hand, the entries in AK 1805 and in NV 1790 (pp. 57, 58, and 65) are largely in agreement; moreover, AK 1805 indicates not only the name of the pastor for whom an Einführungsmusik was originally prepared, but also when and for whom the work was reused. On the other hand, entries for reused works in AK 1805 are in part misleading, in that they do not specify when only one part of a two-part work was reused, and they do not indicate whether the work underwent revision.29
Bach also supplied music (lost) for three installations of headmasters (Rektoren) and/or assistant headmasters (Konrektoren) of the Johanneum, the principal Latin school in Hamburg: for Johann Martin Müller (headmaster) and Johann Andreas Gottfried Schetelig (assistant headmaster) on 7 December 1773; for Anton August Heinrich Lichtenstein (assistant headmaster) on 9 December 1777; and for Lichtenstein (headmaster) and Lorenz Andreas Noodt (assistant headmaster) on 22 October 1782.30
Because of their occasional purpose, Bach did not count on the dissemination of the Einführungsmusiken. Only four of Bach’s Einführungsmusiken survive in sources other than the original performing parts and autograph scores: a manuscript score copy with three pieces, each indicated in the source only as “Einführungsmusik,” stems from Schwenke’s collection and was at least partly used by him the same way as Telemann’s installation cantatas were occasionally performed by Bach;31 and a single movement of the Einführungsmusik for Georg Heinrich Häseler, originally from the former Stadtbibliothek in Hamburg, then hidden during World War II, is now housed in the Rossijskaja nacional’naja biblioteka (Russian National Library) in St. Petersburg. Even the avid Bach collector J.J.H. Westphal did not own copies of the Einführungsmusiken, a topic Westphal raised in a letter of 2 January 1804 to the firm of Hoffmeister & Kühnel:
“I possess virtually the complete works, printed and unprinted, of C.P.E. Bach, so that I lack neither the least minuet nor the least song. I acquired the items for the most part from the composer himself and, after his death, from the widow and daughter. The only things missing from my otherwise complete collection are his occasional cantatas that he composed in Hamburg; I do not own all of them, but can obtain them at any time from the daughter.”32
Bach’s widow, Johanna Maria Bach, on three occasions had Einführungsmusiken by her deceased husband performed during the interim after his death: for Michael Wolters (12 February 1789), Johann Gerhard Runge (28 August 1789), and Johann Matthias Gabriel Stöcker (18 December 1789).33
The holdings of the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin—Preußischer Kulturbesitz, including those of the Sing-Akademie zu Berlin, contain complete musical sources for twelve of Bach’s Einführungsmusiken and partial sources for two others. The librettos are transmitted almost without gaps; according to current knowledge librettos are missing for only three of the Einführungsmusiken listed in NV 1790: for pastors Döhren (1773; music also lost), Friderici (1775; music possibly extant ≡ H 821g), and Michaelsen (1775; music also lost).
The surviving Einführungsmusiken are published in the present edition in chronological order of composition or compilation; revisions for later performances are documented. Cantatas consisting exclusively of a new combination of two independent parts are not given in extenso but are discussed in the context of the works from which they derive. All of the surviving printed librettos from the beginning of Bach’s tenure until the end of the interim period after his death, including those for missing works, are published in facsimile in CPEB:CW, VIII/3.2. As with the Passions, pasticcios are also published in full; for these works, the origin of each movement, so far as is known, is documented. The Einführungsmusiken by Telemann that were performed unaltered by Bach, of which only fragments survive, are not published in the edition.
The following list provides biographical data for those pastors who were installed in Hamburg between Georg Philipp Telemann’s death in June 1767 and Christian Friedrich Gottlieb Schwencke’s installation as music director in December 1789.
The date of the election of a pastor to a new position and the details regarding his installation are at the beginning of each entry. References are given to the respective volumes of CPEB:CW if the music or parts of it are extant; the printed librettos have survived (and are reproduced in facsimile in CPEB:CW, VIII/3.2) unless otherwise indicated.
The basic biographical data include information on birth and death, academic studies, theological examinations, and positions the pastors held both before and after their appointment in Hamburg. Other than sacred poetry set to music by Bach, the pastors’ literary and theological works have not been taken into consideration. Predecessors are always named; successors are listed only if these are connected to Bach in some way. Cross references are given in semibold and are restricted to the family name.
The most important sources of information are, in order of relevance, Bruhn, Janssen, Hammer/Schade, Jensen, Wiermann, and Schröder. Among archival sources from Hamburg the so-called Senioratsprotokolle (D-Ha, 511-1 II 8) provide further pieces of information. The literature listed in the introductions to the respective volumes of CPEB:CW has also been used; wherever possible, discrepancies between the various sources have tacitly been settled. This list supersedes any conflicting information in CPEB:CW, V/3.1–3.4.
Behrmann, Rudolf Gerhard (b. Hamburg, 1 December 1743; d. Hamburg, 29 July 1827)
On 29 August 1773 Behrmann was elected third deacon at St. Petri, succeeding Carl Johann Heise (b. 15 April 1710; d. 13 January 1773). The installation service was held there on 2 November 1773 with a cantata apparently based on TVWV 3:34 (music lost).
After studies in Leipzig (enrolled on 16 April 1766) Behrmann became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 24 November 1769. On 19 December 1769 he was elected catechist at the Spinnhaus and, in late June 1772, deacon at St. Petri in Buxtehude. On 25 May 1780 he was additionally elected pastor at the Werk-, Armen- und Zuchthaus succeeding Georg Heinrich Schultze (b. 30 November 1718; d. 20 March 1780), but resigned from this additional position on 20 June 1787; he was succeeded in this position by Gasie. He was also elected preacher at the Spinnhaus in 1780 and resigned from this position in April 1810. On 23 October 1821 he was awarded an honorary doctorate in theology by Leipzig University.
Berkhan, Georg Heinrich (b. Boffzen in Lower Saxony, 30 August 1747; d. Hamburg, 7 December 1795)
On 22 October 1786 Berkhan was elected head pastor at St. Catharinen succeeding Johann Melchior Goeze (b. 16 October 1717; d. 19 May 1786). The installation service was held there on 8 February 1787 with H 821n (see CPEB:CW, V/3.5).
After studies in Helmstedt (enrolled in 1768) and Göttingen (enrolled in 1770) Berkhan became a candidate in Wolfenbüttel and Braunschweig in 1775. On 14 February 1775 he was elected pastor in Esbeck/Braunschweig. On 2 August 1778 he became second pastor and, on 30 June 1785, head pastor at Heilig-Geistkirche in Magdeburg, succeeding Sturm. Berkhan also became curator of the Handlungsschule in Magdeburg in 1785, succeeding Bracke. Berkhan was succeeded at St. Catharinen by Jänisch.
Bracke, Joachim Christoph (b. Magdeburg, 15 August 1738; d. Hamburg, 16 January 1801)
On 16 January 1785 Bracke was elected head pastor at St. Nicolai, succeeding Johann Dietrich Winckler (b. 27 December 1711; d. 5 April 1784). The installation service was held there on 11 May 1785 with a cantata based on H 821i, part I and H 821f, part II.
After studies in Halle (enrolled in 1757) and Göttingen (enrolled in 1759) Bracke earned his living as a private instructor. In 1763 he became preacher, in 1765 second pastor, and in 1767 first pastor at St. Petri in Magdeburg. He moved on to the second pastorate at the Cathedral of Magdeburg in 1778, was elected superintendent in 1779, and also served in that city as curator of the Handlungsschule. Bracke was succeeded at St. Nicolai by Schäffer.
Brandes, Albert Georg (b. Aumühle/Lauenburg, 25 January 1737; d. Groden, 9 August 1785)
On 21 July 1768 Brandes was elected deacon at Groden, succeeding Johann Dietrich Schwartz (birthdate unknown), who had been promoted to pastor in Groden upon the death of Johann Albert Ehlers (b. 2 December 1705; d. 6 September 1767). The installation service was held at St. Catharinen on 25 August 1768 with a cantata apparently based on TVWV 3:74 with new recitatives by Bach (music lost). Brandes was introduced to his congregation in Groden on 4 September 1768.
After studies in Jena (enrolled on 19 April 1755) Brandes became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 20 October 1758. In 1766 he was appointed catechist at the Waisenhaus. Upon Schwartz’s death on 18 February 1776 Brandes was promoted to pastor in Groden. He was succeeded as deacon in Groden by Schultze, and as pastor by Som.
Cropp, Paul Lorenz (b. Hamburg, 1 October 1759; d. Moorburg, 19 May 1830)
On 19 May 1786 Cropp was elected adjunct pastor at Moorburg in order to assist Christian Gottlob Baumgarten (b. 26 August 1718). The installation service was held at St. Jacobi on 16 June 1786 with a cantata based on H 821k; Cropp was introduced to his congregation in Moorburg on 2 July 1786.
After studies in Leipzig (enrolled on 19 April 1779) and Göttingen (enrolled on 7 May 1781) Cropp became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 16 May 1783. Upon Baumgarten’s death on 5 November 1788 he was promoted to pastor in Moorburg.
Döhren, Johann von (b. Hamburg, 26 October 1741; d. Hamburg, 14 July 1810)
On 13 July 1773 von Döhren was elected pastor at Heilig-Geist, succeeding Matthias Lüttmann (b. 12 October 1708; d. 18 August 1772). The installation service was held there on 10 September 1773 (music and printed libretto lost).
After studies in Jena (enrolled on 18 April 1766) von Döhren became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 30 November 1770. He also served as pastor at the Gast- und Krankenhaus associated with Heilig-Geist.
Eberwein, Johann Christoph (b. Göttingen, 3 September 1730; d. Hamburg, 10 May 1788)
On 16 August 1772 Eberwein was elected first deacon at St. Catharinen, succeeding Julius August Alberti (b. 16 August 1723; d. 30 March 1772). The installation service was held there on 22 October 1772 with a cantata that was later parodied as H 821j (music lost).
After studies in Göttingen, Eberwein became chaplain to Count Danneskjold-Samsoe and, in 1758, pastor in Hohenaspe in Holstein. Later he accepted a position as chaplain at Friedrichsruh-Drage. Eberwein was succeeded at St. Catharinen by Wolters.
Enke [Encke, Emke], August Johann Michael (b. Altluneberg/Wesermünde, 10 May 1749; d. Hamburg, 21 March 1795)
On 13 March 1785 Enke was elected first deacon at St. Jacobi, succeeding Fulda. The installation service was held there on 8 July 1785 with a cantata apparently based on H 821f (music and printed libretto lost). Prior to his diaconate, Enke had become preacher in Meyenburg (Bremen-Lesum) on 16 June 1775.
Flügge, Benedict Gilbert (b. Haselau in Holstein, 4 October 1740; d. Hamburg, 9 April 1792)
On 28 October 1770 Flügge was elected third deacon at St. Michaelis, succeeding Johann Arnold Schrötteringk (b. 7 September 1711; d. 26 April 1770). The installation service was held there on 5 March 1771 (music and printed libretto lost).
Flügge studied in Helmstedt (enrolled in 1757) and on 19 August 1767 was elected pastor in Altenwalde. In 1789 he was promoted to archdeacon at St. Michaelis.
Friderici [Friederici], Johann Christoph (b. Tempelburg/Pomerania, 25 June 1730; d. Hamburg, 12 August 1777)
On 20 August 1775 Friderici was elected head pastor at St. Petri succeeding Ernst Friedrich Mylius (b. 12 June 1710; d. 15 December 1774). The installation service was held there on 12 December 1775, probably with H 821g (Wq 251; see CPEB:CW, V/3.3; printed libretto lost).
Friderici studied in Halle (enrolled in 1751) and became a teacher at the Pädagogium Regium of that city in 1754. In 1756 he accepted the position of private instructor of the sons of Count Reuß in Berlin. On 18 January 1758 he was appointed chaplain of the cavalry regiment of the Prince of Prussia. On 2 February 1760 he became second preacher at St. Nicolai in Neustadt near Magdeburg and, in 1768, pastor at St. Jacobi in Göttingen and superintendent of that city. In 1770 he was elected first pastor in Clausthal and superintendent general of the diocese of Grubenhagen/Harz. On 8 November 1775 he was awarded a doctorate in theology from Kiel University. Friderici was succeeded at St. Petri by Sturm.
Fulda, Johann Christian (b. Wildungen/Waldeck, 29 May 1740; d. Hamburg, 26 July 1784)
On 23 April 1775 Fulda was elected first deacon at St. Jacobi, succeeding Anton Kühl (b. 17 October 1724; d. 20 November 1774). The installation service was held there on 16 June 1775 with a cantata apparently based on TVWV 3:35, part I and TVWV 3:31, part II (music lost).
Fulda became pastor (first preacher) at St. Michaelis in Hildesheim in 1763. He was succeeded at St. Jacobi by Enke.
Gasie, Johann Anton (b. Hamburg, 14 September 1750; d. Hamburg, 7 March 1813)
On 15 May 1785 Gasie was elected first deacon at St. Michaelis, succeeding Daniel Conrad Heinrich Evers (b. 12 October 1721; d. 7 November 1784). The installation service was held there on 30 August 1785 with H 821l (Wq 250; see CPEB:CW, V/3.5).
After studies in Göttingen (enrolled on 13 April 1771) Gasie became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 9 June 1775. On 30 January 1789 he also became pastor at the Werk-, Armen und Zuchthaus, succeeding Behrmann, but he resigned from this additional position on 30 January 1793 and was succeeded by Müller.
Gerling, Christian Ludewig (b. Rostock, 11 November 1745; d. Hamburg, 13 January 1801)
On 7 September 1777 Gerling was elected head pastor at St. Jacobi, succeeding Samuel Christian Ulber (b. 26 August 1714; d. 28 August 1776). The installation service was held there on 28 November 1777 with H 821h (see CPEB:CW, V/3.4).
After studies in Rostock, Gerling went on to Göttingen University (enrolled in 1767) where, in 1769, he was awarded the degree of magister. He became second preacher at the University Church and, in 1771, adjunct in the university’s theology faculty. In 1773 he was elected court preacher in London. In 1776 he accepted the call as professor of theology and preacher at the Kloster zum Heiligen Kreuz in Rostock. On 26 December 1776 he was awarded a doctorate in theology from Göttingen University. On 28 April 1784 he was elected Senior of the Hamburg Ministerium upon the death of Johann Dietrich Winckler (d. 5 April 1784).
Goeze, Gottlieb Friedrich (b. Magdeburg, 3 July 1754; d. Hamburg, 11 November 1791)
On 6 November 1785 Goeze was elected pastor at St. Johannis, succeeding Steen. The installation service was held there on 10 December 1785 with a cantata apparently based on TVWV 3:77 (music lost).
Goeze was the son of Johann Melchior Goeze, who was head pastor at St. Catharinen from 1755 until 1786. G.F. Goeze received private instruction and became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 27 November 1778.
Greve, Wilhelm (b. Hamburg, 26 October 1747; d. Döse, 30 November 1811)
On 4 November 1776 Greve was elected adjunct pastor at Döse in order to assist Friedrich August Selle (b. 14 June 1712). The installation service was held at St. Michaelis on 10 December 1776 with a cantata apparently based on TVWV 3:37 (music lost).
After studies in Jena (enrolled on 8 October 1767) Greve became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 19 June 1772. Upon Selle’s death on 14 September 1780 Greve was promoted to pastor at Döse.
Häseler, Georg Heinrich (b. Hamburg, 21 June 1743; d. Hamburg, 12 October 1820)
On 18 December 1771 Häseler was elected pastor at Allermöhe, succeeding Paul Christoph Henschen (b. 8 July 1702; d. 16 May 1771). The installation service was held at St. Michaelis on 4 February 1772 with H 821d (Wq n.v. 73; see CPEB:CW, V/3.2).
After studies in Jena (enrolled on 5 October 1764) and Leipzig (enrolled on 1 May 1768) Häseler became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 18 May 1770. On 25 October 1789 he was elected fourth deacon at St. Michaelis (installed on 15 December 1789 with a cantata by C.F.G. Schwencke), succeeding Johann Peter Gericke (b. 19 December 1715; d. 22 April 1790), who had resigned in 1789. Häseler was succeeded at Allermöhe by Stöcker.
Heidritter [Heideritter], Johann Georg (b. Stade, 6 January 1738; d. Stade, 26 June 1824)
On 14 May 1769 Heidritter was elected pastor at St. Pauli auf dem Hamburger Berge, succeeding Gottlieb Friedrich Wagner (b. 17 September 1733; d. 4 January 1769). The installation service was held there on 10 August 1769 with a cantata possibly based on TVWV 3:31 (music and printed libretto lost).
After studies in Göttingen (enrolled on 29 April 1757) Heidritter became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 24 April 1761 and, on 15 June 1762, candidate in Stade. On 29 April 1763 he was elected pastor in Horneburg near Hamburg. In 1813, Heidritter, who supposedly held a doctorate in theology, became pastor in Stade; he resigned in February 1819.
Hoeck, Heinrich (b. Hamburg, 18 October 1700; d. Hamburg, 26 April 1779)
On 24 June 1775 Hoeck, first pastor of Heilige Dreieinigkeit St. Georg, celebrated his 50-year anniversary in office (Jubelfeier) there with the Jubelmusik H 824c (music lost). He had been elected pastor of that church on 3 July 1729, succeeding Nicolaus Müller (b. 22 March 1672; d. 21 January 1725). The installation service was held there on 17 November 1729 with a cantata by Georg Philipp Telemann, TVWV 3:14 (music lost).
After studies in Gießen (enrolled on 14 June 1718) and Wittenberg (enrolled 10 May 1719) Hoeck became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 24 January 1721. In the same year he accepted a call as chaplain to the Konferenzrat von Plessen. On 24 June 1725 he was elected pastor in Sülfeld/Stormarn. On 13 June 1741, in addition to his position at Heilige Dreieinigkeit St. Georg, he was also elected pastor at St. Hiob. He got the degree of licentiate from Rinteln University and, on 17 March 1759 he was awarded a doctorate in theology by that university. Hoeck was succeeded at Heilige Dreieinigkeit St. Georg by Wichmann.
Hornbostel, David Herrmann (b. Dannenberg, 15 May 1736; d. Hamburg, 13 January 1814)
On 12 July 1772 Hornbostel was elected third deacon at St. Nicolai, succeeding Michael Gerhard Feyga (b. 21 March 1705; d. 17 February 1772). The installation service was held there on 23 September 1772 with H 821e (see CPEB:CW, V/3.2).
After studies in Jena (enrolled on 13 May 1756) and Göttingen (enrolled on 13 October 1758) Hornbostel became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 24 April 1761. On Easter Sunday 1764 he became deacon in Mölln and, in 1768, pastor in Breitenfelde/Lauenburg.
Jänisch, Rudolph [Rudolf] (b. Hamburg, 22 May 1750; d. Hamburg, 7 April 1826)
On 28 November 1781 Jänisch was elected adjunct pastor at Altengamme to assist Johann Hinrich Vermehren (b. 6 May 1701). Upon the latter’s death on 11 January 1782 Jänisch was promoted to pastor. The installation service was held at St. Nicolai on 16 January 1782 with H 821k (see CPEB:CW, V/3.4); Jänisch was introduced to his congregation in Altengamme on 27 January 1782.
After studies in Göttingen (enrolled on 10 October 1770) Jänisch became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 14 October 1774. On 22 November 1774 he was nominated catechist at the Zucht- und Armenhaus; upon his move to Altengamme, he was replaced in this position by Barthold Jakob Klambeck (b. 2 September 1753; d. 8 February 1787). In 1789 Jänisch became preacher at the German congregation in Amsterdam and, in 1796, returned to Hamburg as head pastor at St. Catharinen, succeeding Berkhan.
Klefeker, Johann Matthias (b. Moorfleet, 4 November 1743; d. Moorfleet, 22 June 1782)
On 16 October 1771 Klefeker was elected pastor at Moorfleet, succeeding his father Johann Conrad Klefeker (b. 17 September 1710; d. 13 August 1771). The installation service was held at St. Michaelis on 5 November 1771 with H 821b (see CPEB:CW, V/3.1); Klefeker was introduced to his congregation in Moorfleet on 17 November 1771.
After studies in Jena (enrolled in 1765) Klefeker became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 5 July 1771. He was succeeded at Moorfleet by Lütkens.
Klug, Peter Heinrich (baptized Hamburg, 24 March 1742; d. Hamburg, n.d.)
On 29 May 1772 Klug was nominated preacher of the Lutheran congregation in Arkhangelsk, Russia, succeeding Georg Ehrenfried Paul Raupach (n.d.). The installation service was held at St. Michaelis on 2 June 1772 with a cantata apparently based on TVWV 3:77 (music lost).
After studies in Halle (enrolled on 9 October 1759) Klug became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 31 May 1766. In 1768 he was appointed catechist at the St. Catharinen school. In 1781 he returned to Hamburg after resigning from his position in Arkhangelsk, where he was succeeded by Lampe.
Lampe, Johann Georg (b. Hamburg, 6 April 1749; d. St. Petersburg, 5 June 1813)
On 5 April 1781 Lampe was nominated preacher of the Lutheran congregation in Arkhangelsk, Russia, succeeding Klug. The installation ceremony was held at St. Nicolai on 9 May 1781 with a cantata apparently based on TVWV 3:37 (music lost).
After studies in Helmstedt (enrolled on 15 March 1771) Lampe became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 9 June 1775. In 1779 he was nominated afternoon preacher at Heilige Dreieinigkeitskirche St. Georg. In the spring of 1784 he became pastor at St. Petri in St. Petersburg and was succeeded as pastor in Arkhangelsk by Lindes.
Liebrecht, Johann Matthias (b. Hamburg, 16 January 1738; d. Lauenburg, 23 October 1775)
On 20 December 1767 Liebrecht was elected second deacon at St. Michaelis, succeeding Daniel Rücker (b. 14 June 1692; d. 23 October 1773), who had resigned due to deafness. The installation service was held there on 8 March 1768 during the interim after G.P. Telemann’s death with a cantata by G.M. Telemann (text by Johann Maximilian Muhl).
After studies in Gießen (enrolled 7 April 1758) and Göttingen (enrolled on 28 April 1759) Liebrecht became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 24 April 1761. On 23 March 1764 he was elected deacon in Lauenburg. Liebrecht was succeeded at St. Michaelis by Wächter.
Lindes, Johann Heinrich (baptized Hamburg, 26 September 1758; d. Arkhangelsk, 12 April 1828)
On 17 May 1784 Lindes was nominated preacher of the Lutheran congregation in Arkhangelsk, Russia, succeeding Lampe. The installation service was held at St. Jacobi on 18 June 1784 with a cantata based on H 821a, part I and H 821b, part I.
Lindes studied in Göttingen (enrolled on 23 April 1779). He became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 7 November 1783.
Lüders (cf. CPEB:CW, V/3.1): recte Lindes
Lütkens, Johann Heinrich [Hinrich] (b. Hamburg, 1 January 1746; d. Moorfleet, 2 February 1814)
On 25 November 1782 Lütkens was elected pastor at Moorfleet, succeeding Klefeker. The installation service was held at St. Nicolai on 29 January 1783 with a revised version of H 821h; Lütkens was introduced to his congregation in Moorfleet on 9 February 1783.
After studies in Leipzig (enrolled on 22 April 1769) and Göttingen (enrolled on 1 May 1770) Lütkens became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 19 June 1772. In 1778 he was elected deacon and garrison preacher in Ratzeburg. Lütkens wrote the text for H 821h in 1777, which he adapted for his own installation in 1783. He is apparently also the author of the text of the Gartenlied, Wq 200/15.
Michaelsen, Johann Martin (b. Hamburg, 21 March 1742; d. Hamburg, 8 April 1816)
On 8 October 1775 Michaelsen was elected preacher at the Waisenhaus, succeeding Christian Adolph Fibing (b. 19 July 1732; d. 30 January 1775). The installation service was held at St. Nicolai on 8 November 1775 (music and printed libretto lost); he was introduced at the Waisenhaus on 22 November 1775.
After studies in Leipzig (enrolled on 14 September 1766) Michaelsen became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 5 July 1771. He was elected catechist at the Waisenhaus on 27 February 1772. Michaelsen resigned as preacher at the Waisenhaus in June 1815.
Müller, Christian Heinrich Ernst (b. Otterndorf/Hadeln, 13 August 1753; d. Hamburg, 26 August 1826)
On 25 June 1786 Müller was elected second deacon at St. Petri, succeeding Alexander Joachim Johann Schröder (b. 15 June 1712; d. 22 January 1786). The installation service was held there on 5 September 1786 with a cantata apparently based on H 821j (music and printed libretto lost).
After studies in Leipzig (enrolled on 18 April 1774) Müller became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 26 June 1778. In 1793 he was also appointed pastor at the Werk-, Armen und Zuchthaus, succeeding Gasie in this position, and on 23 March 1796 he was also elected pastor at St. Hiob, succeeding Wichmann. Müller resigned from both additional positions in 1806 as a result of the French occupation of Hamburg.
Palm, Christian Arnold (b. Hamburg, 30 September or 2 October 1736; d. Hamburg, 6 April 1821)
On 23 April 1769 Palm was elected first deacon at St. Nicolai, succeeding Adam Christoph Höfer (b. 15 September 1704; d. 10 November 1768). The installation service was held there on 12 July 1769 with H 821a (see CPEB:CW, V/3.1).
After studies in Göttingen (enrolled on 6 May 1756) Palm became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 12 December 1760. In 1763 he took the examination in Rendsburg and was elected pastor in Münsterdorf/Holstein on 4 October 1765. Palm resigned from St. Nicolai on 1 September 1817.
Rambach, Johann Jacob (b. Teupitz/Teltow, 27 March 1737; d. Ottensen near Hamburg, 6 August 1818)
On 21 May 1780 Rambach was elected head pastor at St. Michaelis, succeeding Georg Ludwig Herrnschmidt (b. 11 January 1712; d. 23 November 1779). The installation service was held there on 3 October 1780 with H 821j (music lost).
In 1759 Rambach became a teacher and, in 1760, headmaster at the Pädagogium zum Kloster Unser Lieben Frauen in Magdeburg. In 1764 he was nominated headmaster in Quedlinburg and, in 1773, head preacher of that city. On 10 April 1801 he was elected Senior of the Hamburg Ministerium, succeeding Gerling; Rambach was succeeded by Willerding in this position.
Runge, Johann Gerhard (b. Hamburg, 14 June 1747; d. Billwerder, 22 June 1811)
On 14 July 1789 Runge was elected adjunct pastor at Billwerder in order to assist Peter Brameyer (b. 22 September 1718; d. 9 January 1790). The installation service was held at St. Jacobi on 28 August 1789 with a cantata based on H 821j (music lost); Runge was introduced to his congregation in Billwerder on 6 September 1789.
After studies in Göttingen (enrolled on 4 May 1772) Runge became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 8 December 1775. He succeeded Brameyer upon his resignation in late 1789 as pastor in Billwerder.
Schäffer, Johann Jacob (b. Hamburg, 30 December 1751; d. Hamburg, 19 July 1819)
On 24 April 1785 Schäffer was elected second deacon at St. Nicolai, succeeding Gottfried Rüter (b. 20 January 1727; d. 26 January 1785). The installation service was held there on 3 August 1785 with H 821m (Wq 253; see CPEB:CW, V/3.5).
After studies in Jena (enrolled on 20 April 1771) and Göttingen (enrolled on 21 April 1773) Schäffer became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 14 October 1774. On 31 May 1780 he was nominated catechist at the Spinnhaus in Hamburg. On 19 July 1801 he was elected head pastor at St. Nicolai, succeeding Bracke. Schäffer resigned from St. Nicolai on 11 December 1818.
Schuchmacher, Otto Christian (b. Buxtehude, 12 April 1738; d. Hamburg, 29 March 1793)
On 8 September 1771 Schuchmacher was elected second deacon at St. Jacobi, succeeding Erdmann Gottwerth Neumeister (b. 15 November 1718; d. 14 April 1771). The installation service was held there on 8 November 1771 with H 821c (see CPEB:CW, V/3.1), part II of which was apparently based on TVWV 3:35, part II (music lost).
After studies in Gießen (enrolled on 7 April 1758) and Göttingen (enrolled on 30 April 1759) Schuchmacher became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 20 November 1761. On 30 June 1769 he was elected preacher in Horneburg near Hamburg.
Schuldze [Schultze], Johann Daniel (b. Groden, 28 May 1738; d. Ochsenwerder, 22 February 1822)
On 11 September 1771 Schuldze was elected adjunct pastor at Ochsenwerder in order to assist Philipp Ludolf Scriba (b. 4 May 1704). The installation service was held at St. Michaelis on 24 September 1771 with a cantata apparently based on TVWV 3:31 (music lost); he was introduced to his congregation in Ochsenwerder on 29 September 1771.
After studies in Helmstedt (enrolled on 30 April 1759) Schuldze became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 26 November 1762. Upon Scriba’s death on 10 March 1775 Schuldze was promoted to pastor in Ochsenwerder.
Schultze, Jacob Christian (b. Groden, 28 October 1752; d. Groden, 22 August 1783)
On 9 August 1776 Schultze was elected deacon at Groden, succeeding Brandes. The installation service was held at St. Michaelis on 10 September 1776 with a cantata apparently based on TVWV 3:77 (music lost).
After studies in Altdorf (enrolled on 25 April 1771) and Göttingen (enrolled on 13 April 1773) Schultze became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 9 June 1775. Schultze was succeeded at Groden by Som.
Schwabe, Johann Georg (b. Hamburg, 31 August 1735; d. Hamburg, 30 March 1808)
On 27 September 1767 Schwabe was elected third deacon at St. Catharinen, succeeding Joachim Johann Daniel Zimmermann (b. 27 October 1710; d. 2 January 1767). The installation service was held there on 10 December 1767 during the interim after G.P. Telemann’s death with a cantata by G.M. Telemann (text by Johann Maximilian Muhl).
Schwabe studied in Jena (enrolled 15 April 1759). He became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 20 November 1761.
Som [Somm], Franz Carl von (b. Hamburg, 1 or 2 August 1743; d. Groden or its vicinity, 15 October 1818)
On 26 November 1783 Som was elected deacon at Groden, succeeding Schultze. The installation service was held at St. Jacobi on 14 May 1784 with a cantata based on H 824c, part I (music lost) and H 821g, part II.
After studies in Leipzig (enrolled on 14 September 1766) and Göttingen (enrolled on 19 October 1768) Som became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 19 June 1772. On 21 January 1774 he was elected pastor in Altenwalde. Upon Brandes’s death he was promoted to pastor in Groden on 30 January 1786; his position as deacon was filled by Wessel. Som resigned as pastor in Groden on 29 September 1817.
Steen, Michael David (b. Curslack, 12 October 1732; d. Hamburg, 17 December 1784)
On 26 August 1781 Steen was elected pastor at St. Johannis succeeding Georg Heinrich Schultze (b. 30 November 1718; d. 20 March 1780). The installation service was held there on 1 December 1781 with a cantata apparently based on H 821f.
Steen studied in Jena (enrolled on 8 May 1756), where he was awarded the degree of magister in 1757. He became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 18 May 1759. In 1768 he was elected adjunct pastor in Heide/Dithmarschen and, in 1771, pastor in Neuenkirchen/Norderdithmarschen. Steen was succeeded at St. Johannis by Goeze.
Stöcker [Stäcker], Johann Matthias Gabriel (b. Hamburg, 15 October 1761; d. Hamburg, 29 September 1814)
On 25 October 1789 Stöcker was elected pastor at Allermöhe, succeeding Häseler. The installation service was held at St. Jacobi on 18 December 1789 with a cantata based on H 821h; Stöcker was introduced to his congregation in Allermöhe on 27 December 1789.
After studies in Leipzig (enrolled on 16 April 1782) Stöcker became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 31 October 1785. In 1798 he became mentally ill and was declared pastor emeritus in 1801. Stöcker died in a Hamburg asylum.
Sturm, Christoph Christian (b. Augsburg, 25 January 1740; d. Hamburg, 26 August 1786)
On 26 April 1778 Sturm was elected head pastor at St. Petri, succeeding Friderici. The installation service was held there on 1 September 1778 with H 821i (see CPEB:CW, V/3.4).
Sturm studied in Jena (enrolled in 1760), where he was awarded the degree of magister in 1761. In the same year he enrolled at Halle University. In 1762 he became a teacher at the Pädagogium of that city and, in 1765, deputy director in Sorau/Niederlausitz. In 1767 he was nominated preacher at the Marktkirche in Halle (when W.F. Bach was still music director there) and was elected pastor at Heiligen-Geist in Magdeburg in 1769. Sturm was a prolific poet and collaborated with C.P.E. Bach on the two collections of Geistliche Gesänge, Wq 197 and 198. Sturm was succeeded at St. Petri by Willerding.
Wächter, Johann Leonhard (b. Groß-Lesewitz/West Prussia, 24 April 1732; d. Hamburg, 26 October 1798)
On 7 July 1776 Wächter was elected second deacon at St. Michaelis, succeeding Liebrecht. The installation service was held there on 24 September 1776 with a cantata apparently based on TVWV 3:31, part I and TVWV 3:35, part II (music lost).
After studies in Helmstedt (enrolled in 1752) Wächter earned his living as a private instructor. On 27 August 1758 he was elected deacon at St. Marien in Ueltzen and, in 1773, deacon at St. Nicolai in Lüneburg.
Wessel [Wessell], Jacob Thomas (b. Hamburg, 8 February 1757; d. Groden, 5 August 1789)
On 2 May 1786 Wessel was elected deacon at Groden, succeeding Som. The installation service was held at St. Jacobi on 30 June 1786 with a cantata apparently based on TVWV 3:34 (music lost); he was introduced to his congregation in Groden on 16 July 1786.
After studies in Leipzig (enrolled on 1 May 1775) Wessel became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 14 April 1780. In 1783 he was nominated catechist at the Waisenhaus.
Wichmann, Johann Otto (b. Buxtehude, 2 November 1730; d. Hamburg, 5 February 1796)
On 24 January 1773 Wichmann was elected second pastor at Heilige Dreieinigkeit St. Georg, succeeding Christian Heinrich Müller (b. 24 November 1700; d. 25 August 1772). The installation service was held there on 18 March 1773 with a cantata possibly based on TVWV 3:31 (music and printed libretto lost).
After studies in Helmstedt and Wittenberg, Wichmann became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 21 March 1755. In the summer of 1755 he also took the theological examination in Rendsburg. In 1757 he was elected pastor in Haselau in Holstein. On 14 May 1779 shortly after the death of Hoeck, Wichmann was promoted to first pastor; the position of second pastor at Heilige Dreieinigkeit was not filled again until 1839. From 15 June 1779 he also served as pastor at St. Hiob Hospital.
Willerding, Heinrich Julius (b. Hildesheim, 21 October 1748; d. Hamburg, 12 January 1834)
On 17 June 1787 Willerding was elected head pastor at St. Petri, succeeding Sturm. The installation service was held there on 11 September 1787 with H 821o (see CPEB:CW, V/3.5).
Willerding studied in Göttingen until 1770. In 1772 he became pastor in Salzdetfurth in Lower Saxony. In 1774 he was appointed pastor at St. Andreas in Hildesheim and, in 1778, second pastor at St. Ulrich in Magdeburg. On 26 August 1818 he was elected Senior of the Hamburg Ministerium, succeeding Rambach; on 30 September 1818 he was awarded a doctorate in theology from Halle University.
Winkler [Winckler], Herrmann [Hermann] Erich (b. Hildesheim, 11 April 1738; d. Lüneburg, 17 March 1793)
On 22 November 1772 Winkler was elected second deacon at St. Catharinen, succeeding Bernhard Nicolaus Hartz (b. 8 December 1713; d. 28 April 1772). The installation service was held there on 14 January 1773 with H 821f (Wq 252; see CPEB:CW, V/3.3).
After studies in Göttingen (enrolled in 1758) Winkler became pastor (second preacher) at St. Michaelis in Hildesheim in 1763 and moved on to the pastorate at St. Jacobi in that city in 1764. On 24 September 1792 Winkler was elected superintendent at St. Johannis in Lüneburg, where he died during his installation.
Wolters, Michael (b. Hamburg, 19 January 1754; d. Hamburg, 3 April 1803)
On 30 November 1788 Wolters was elected first deacon at St. Catharinen, succeeding Eberwein. The installation service was held there on 12 February 1789 with a cantata based on H 821l.
After studies in Göttingen (enrolled on 4 May 1775) and Kiel (enrolled on 6 April 1778) Wolters earned his living as a private instructor. He became a candidate of the Hamburg Ministerium on 31 October 1785. A publication from 1800 gives his title as magister and he supposedly held a doctorate from Göttingen University.
1. See Miesner and Clark.
2. For a summary of the church music reforms of 1789, see Sanders, 140–45.
3. BA 1789, facsimile in: Ulrich Leisinger, “Die ‘Bachsche Auction’ von 1789,” BJ (1991): 112–22; and AK 1805, facsimile in: Elias N. Kulukundis, “Die Versteigerung von C.P.E. Bachs musikalischem Nachlaß im Jahre 1805,” BJ (1995): 145–76.
4. Sanders, esp. 83–94.
5. See Ulrich Leisinger, “Neues über Carl Philipp Emanuel Bachs Passionen nach ‘historischer und alter Art’, ” JbSIM (2002): 107–19, esp. 117. See also Sanders, 134–35.
6. Ulrich Leisinger, “Carl Philipp Emanuel Bachs Kirchenkantaten. Eine Standortbestimmung,” JbSIM (2003): 116–25.
7. See Miesner, 82–89; Clark, 122–51; and Enßlin/Wolf 2007. Both Clark and Helm use the term “inauguration” instead of “installation.”
8. Both Juraten and Leichnamsgeschworenen were elected members of parish councils and were responsible for financing church services. Two Juraten served overlapping two-year terms, resulting in an annual election; the Leichnamsgeschworenen, on the other hand, were elected for life and were also responsible for the decoration of the altar and the church. See CPEB-Briefe, 1:153–54.
9. On such costs see Enßlin/Wolf 2007, 175–77, table 9; there, however, the invoices for the installations of Leichnamsgeschworenen are not included.
10. See, for example, the statement of costs for the installation of David Herrmann Hornbostel at St. Nicolai on 23 September 1772 (CPEB-Briefe, 1:282–83) or of Johann Anton Gasie on 10 August 1785 as deacon of St. Michaelis (CPEB-Briefe, 2:1096–97).
11. The single most important source for information about the Hamburg churches is Janssen. See also Jensen, Bruhn, and Enßlin/Wolf 2007.
12. The following congregations were supervised by the Hamburg Ministerium, although no new pastors were installed there between 1768 and 1788: Maria Magdalena (within the city walls), Eppendorf, Hamm und Horn, Bergedorf, and Neuengamme. No Einführungsmusiken are recorded for the pastors at the Zuchthaus (Janssen, 173–76) and the Spinnhaus-Kirche (ibid., 181), or for the position of Schiffs-Prediger on the Elbe guard ship (ibid., 153–56). The Hamburg and Lübeck authorities alternated in the calling of new pastors in the congregations they oversaw jointly. The vacancies in Kirchwerder, Curslack, and Geesthacht (ibid., 264–72) during Bach’s tenure were filled under the supervision of the Lübeck clergy; neither Bach nor the Hamburg musicians were involved in these ceremonies. Similarly the congregation of Altenwalde had been overseen jointly by Hannover and Hamburg authorities since 1730 (ibid., 243–46).
13. Three such pastors were Peter Heinrich Klug and Johann Georg Lampe, installed on 2 June 1772 and 9 May 1781, respectively, at St. Michaelis, and Johann Heinrich Lindes, Lampe’s successor, installed on 18 June 1784 at St. Jacobi. See Joachim Christian Grot, Bemerkungen über die Religionsfreyheit der Ausländer im Rußischen Reich (St. Petersburg and Leipzig: Dyk, 1797), 1:337ff. There is no evidence, however, that an Einführungsmusik was provided for the pastors at the Dreieinigkeitskirche in London, although they were sent there from Hamburg. See Johann Gottlieb Burkhardt, Kirchengeschichte der Deutschen Gemeinden in London (Tübingen, 1798).
14. See the report on the installation of Constantin Detlef Hasse as deacon of St. Jacobi on 14 May 1762 in Neubacher 2009, 53–54.
15. Printed inaugural sermons are known for Pastors Palm, Schuchmacher, Fulda, Gerling, Sturm, Rambach, Berkhan, and Willerding; all except those for Palm and Berkhan include the text of the respective Einführungsmusik as an appendix.
16. HUC 198 (13 December 1775): 3; quoted in Wiermann, 396: “Gestern hielt Herr Johann Christoph Friderici, der Gottesgelahrtheit Doctor, … an der hiesigen Haupt-Kirche zu St. Petri seine Antritts-Predigt, die … von einer außerordentlich zahlreichen Versammlung angehöret wurde. Hierauf stellte ihn der Herr Senior Herrnschmid der Petrinischen Gemeine als ihren ersten Lehrer vor. Vor und nach der Predigt führte der Herr Kapellmeister Bach eine von ihm zu dieser Feyerlichkeit componirte Cantate auf.”
17. See Leisinger, “Die ‘Bachsche Auction’, ” 107–8. Contrary to the opinion expressed there, it is not an arrangement; rather, the surviving copy by Telemann (D-B, Mus. ms. autogr. Telemann 125) contains no entries by C.P.E. Bach.
18. In most of the surviving printed librettos, the concluding chorus is indicated by the heading “Zum Beschluss” (or the closely related variants “Beschluss” and “Schluss-Chor”); the rest use the equivalent “Nach der Einsegnung.”
19. See also the invoice for the installation of August Johann Michael Enke as deacon of St. Jacobi in July 1785 in CPEB-Briefe, 2:1089. The Einführungsmusik for this occasion was based on H 821f, resulting in extra expenses “für nöthige Verändrungen in Personalien und daher erstandne Copialien” (for the necessary revisions of the [pastors’] names and the resulting [new] copies).
20. See the undated letter from Bach to Georg Michael Telemann in CPEB-Briefe, 1:157. On the Einführungsmusik for Brandes, which is a pasticcio based on G.P. Telemann’s Einführungsmusik for Berthold Nikolaus Krohn (TVWV 3:74) with additional recitatives by Bach, see Wiermann, 358.
21. On the reused works in general, see Enßlin/Wolf 2007, 158–59, table 2. This practice was apparently already known to Telemann and was continued by C.F.G. Schwencke.
22. See Enßlin/Wolf 2007, 172, table 6.
23. An exception is the invoice for the installation of Friderici on 12 December 1775; see CPEB-Briefe, 1:543–44.
24. The dates of election are catalogued in Janssen; the dates of performance are found in the printed librettos or, when these are missing, almost always in other sources such as newspaper announcements.
25. See Enßlin/Wolf 2007, 174–75, table 8.
26. On the present state of research into this see Enßlin/Wolf 2007, 161–64, table 3.
27. The jubilee was calculated, according to custom, from the clergyman’s installation in his first preaching position, even if that was outside Hamburg or one of its subordinate districts. Thus Hoeck, who was installed as pastor in Allermöhe in 1729, celebrated his jubilee in 1775, fifty years after his installation as preacher in Sülsfeld in 1725. Jubilees were similarly calculated for some of the pastors installed under Bach’s direction: Johann Georg Heidritter (installed as preacher in Horneburg in 1763 and as pastor of St. Pauli in Hamburg in 1769; jubilee in 1813), Rudolph Gerhard Behrmann (installed as deacon of St. Petri in Buxtehude in 1772 and as deacon of St. Petri in Hamburg in 1773; jubilee in 1822), and Heinrich Julius Willerding (installed as preacher in Salzdetfurth bei Hildesheim in 1772 and as head pastor of St. Petri in Hamburg in 1787; jubilee in 1822).
28. Although likewise called a Jubelmusik in NV 1790, p. 59, the cantata Halleluja! Gelobet sei des Herrn Name, H 824d, written in honor of Johann Klefeker (1698–1775) and performed on 6 July 1775, belongs to a different genre. The cantata is in one part only and was performed during a by-invitation lunch in honor of Klefeker who, as chief syndic, had a leading function in the political administration of Hamburg. For details of the performance see the “Vorbericht” to Sammlung der Jubelschriften, welche bey der funfzigjährigen Amts-Jubelfeyer Sr. Magnificenz des Herrn Johann Klefeker…gewiedmet worden sind (Hamburg: Christian Simon Schröder’s widow, ).
29. In the case of the Einführungsmusik for Som, the AK 1805 entry does not specify that part II was based on part II of the Einführungsmusik H 821g.
30. The Einführungsmusik Müller/Schetelig, for which a printed libretto survives, is listed in NV 1790, p. 58, and possibly AK 1805 (lot 38); see Wiermann, 384–86. A printed libretto also survives for the Einführungsmusik Lichtenstein, which was based on the Einführungsmusik Müller/Schetelig; see Wiermann, 401–2. Although a printed libretto does not survive for the Einführungsmusik Lichtenstein/Noodt, it may also have been based on the Einführungsmusik Müller/Schetelig; see Enßlin/Wolf 2007, 140, n. 7. Facsimiles of the extant librettos are published in CPEB:CW, VIII/3.2.
31. D-B, Mus. ms. Bach P 347: Einführungsmusik for Friderici, H 821g; Winkler, H 821f; and Schäffer, H 821m. There remain doubts as to whether H 821g, identified from this manuscript as the Einführungsmusik for Friderici in Clark, 133–36, on the basis of the instrumentation indicated in NV 1790, was actually used for Friderici’s installation; see Enßlin/Wolf 2007, 170–72.
32. Cited in Leisinger/Wollny, 41: “Ich besitze zwar die completten C.P.E. Bachschen Sachen gedruckte und ungedruckte, so daß mir nicht die geringste Menuett oder das geringste Lied von ihm fehlt, indem ich größtentheils die Sachen von ihm selbst und nach seinem Tode von der Wittwe und Tochter erhalten habe. Das einzige was mir an der völligen Completirung fehlt, sind seine Gelegenheits-Cantaten die er in Hamburg gemacht hat, diese besitze ich nicht alle, kann sie aber noch zu jeder Zeit von der Tochter erhalten.”
33. Additionally, an invoice dated 17 December 1789, submitted by Bach’s widow, summarizes costs for supplying the music for the installation of Häseler as deacon of St. Michaelis; see CPEB-Briefe, 2:1319–20. However, according to the printed libretto, the Einführungsmusik for that occasion was a work by Schwencke (“neu verfertigt von C.F.G. Schwenke”), who was about to begin officially as the new Hamburg music director.